This is a list of all the readings, required and optional, for the class.  If a paper is on here and not specifically listed on the syllabus, it’s simply provided as a reference.


  1. Barfield and Furness. Virtual Environments and Advanced Interface Design. Oxford Press, 1995.
  2. Bowman, Kruijff, LaViola, and Poupyrev, 3D User Interfaces: Theory and Practice. Addison-Wesley, 2005. ISBN 0-201-75867-9.
  3. Craig and Sherman, Understanding Virtual Reality: Interface, Application and Design. The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Computer Graphics, 2003. ISBN 1-558-60353-0.
  4. Crawford, C. (2004).  Chris Crawford on Interactive Storytelling.  New Riders Games. link
  5. Gibson, William.  Virtual Light. 1994. link
  6. Stephenson, Neal.  Snow Crash.  1994.  link
  7. Vinge, Vernor.  Rainbows End.  2007.  link
  8. John Hench and Peggy Van Pelt. Designing Disney.  2003.  link


  1. Roland Arsenault and Colin Ware, “The Importance of Stereo and Eye-Coupled Perspective for Eye-Hand Coordination in Fish Tank VR“, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 2004 13:5, 549-559
  2. Azuma, R., “A survey of augmented reality”, Presense, 6:4, pp 355-386, 1997
  3. Bajura, M., Henry Fuchs, Ryutarou Ohbuchi (1992). Merging virtual objects with the real world: seeing ultrasound imagery within the patient. ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics.
  4. Barba, Evan, Blair MacIntyre, and Elizabeth Mynatt. 2012. “Here We Are! Where Are We? Locating Mixed Reality in The Age of the Smartphone.” Proceedings of the IEEE, 100 (4): 929-936. IEEE. JPROC.2011.2182070
  5. Barba, Evan and Blair MacIntyre. 2011. “A Scale Model of Mixed Reality.” Paper presented at C&C ’11. ACM, 117-126. 2069618.2069640
  6. Barrus, J. W., Waters, R. C., and Anderson, D. B. 1996. Locales: Supporting Large Multiuser Virtual Environments. IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 16, 6 (Nov. 1996), 50-57.
  7. Balakrishnan, R., Fitzmaurice, G. W., and Kurtenbach, G. 2001. User Interfaces for Volumetric Displays. Computer 34, 3 (Mar. 2001), 37-45.
  8. Benford, S., Greenhalgh, C., Rodden, T., and Pycock, J. 2001. Collaborative virtual environments. Commun. ACM 44, 7 (Jul. 2001), 79-85.
  9. Billinghurst, M. and Kato, H. 2002. Collaborative augmented reality. Commun. ACM 45, 7 (Jul. 2002), 64-70.
  10. Bishop, G., Henry Fuchs, Leonard McMillan, and Ellen J. ScherZagier “Frameless rendering: double buffering considered harmful” Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 94, pp 175-176, 1994
  11. Bowman, D.A., Chen, J., Wingrave, C., Lucas, J., Ray, A., Polys, N., Li, Q., Haciahmetoglu, Y., Kim, J-S., Kim, S., Boehringer, R., & Ni,T. New Directions in 3D User Interfaces. International Journal of Virtual Reality, 5(2), 2006.!ijvr_bowman_formatted.pdf
  12. Bowman, D.A and Dheva Raja. A method for quantifying the benefits of immersion using the cave. Presence-Connect, 2, 2004.
  13. A. Brogni, V. Vinayagamoorthy, A. Steed, M. Slater. Variations in physiological responses of participants during different stages of an immersive virtual environment experiment. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST ’06) (Limassol, Cyprus, November 01 – 03, 2006),
  14. Frederick Brooks. Whats Real About Virtual Reality? IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, November/December 1999, pp. 16-27.
  15. Cakmakci, O.; Rolland, J.; , “Head-worn displays: a review,” Display Technology, Journal of , vol.2, no.3, pp.199-216, Sept. 2006 doi: 10.1109/JDT.2006.879846 link
  16. Matthew Conway, Steve Audia, Tommy Burnette, Dennis Cosgrove, Kevin Christiansen, Rob Deline, Jim Durbin, Rich Gossweiler, Shuichi Koga, Chris Long, Beth Mallory, Steve Miale, Kristen Monkaitis, James Patten, Jeff Pierce, Joe Shochet, David Staack, Brian Stearns, Richard Stoakley, Chris Sturgill, John Viega, Jeff White, George Williams, & Randy Pausch. Alice: Lessons Learned from Building a 3D System for Novices. Proceedings of CHI, 2000, pp. 486-493. link
  17. Dietrich, A., Ingo Wald, Markus Wagner, and Philipp Slusallek. VRML scene graphs on an interactive ray tracing engine. In VR, pages 109-116. IEEE Computer Society, 2004.
  18. Steven Feiner and Blair MacIntyre and Doree Seligmann, “Knowledge-Based Augmented Reality”, Communications of the ACM, 36:7, July 1993.
  19. Foskey, M., Miguel A. Otaduy, and Ming C. Lin. Artnova: Touch-enabled 3D model design. In VR, pages 119-126, 2002. ieeexplore link
  20. Foxlin, E.; , “Pedestrian tracking with shoe-mounted inertial sensors,” Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE , vol.25, no.6, pp.38-46, Nov.-Dec. 2005
  21. doi: 10.1109/MCG.2005.140 link
  22. Fritsch, T., Ritter, H., and Schiller, J. 2005. The effect of latency and network limitations on MMORPGs: a field study of everquest2. In Proceedings of 4th ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Network and System Support For Games (Hawthorne, NY, October 10 – 11, 2005). NetGames ’05. ACM, New York, NY, 1-9. DOI=
  23. B. Fröhlich and J. Plate, “The Cubic Mouse: A New Device for 3D Input,” Proc. ACM CHI 2000, ACM Press, New York, Apr. 2000, pp. 526-531.  link
  24. Frohlich, B.; Plate, J.; Wind, J.; Wesche, G.; Gobel, M.;  Cubic-Mouse-based interaction in virtual environments.Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE.  Volume 20,  Issue 4,  July-Aug. 2000 Page(s):12 – 15.  link
  25. Gandy, Maribeth, Richard Catrambone, Blair MacIntyre, Cristobal Alvarez, Elsa Eiriksdottir, Matthew Hilimire, Brian Davidson, and Anne McLaughlin. 2010. “Experiences with an AR Evaluation Test Bed: Presence, Performance, and Physiological Measurement.” Paper presented at ISMAR ’10. 13-16 October 2010. Seoul, Korea. IEEE, 127-136. ISMAR.2010.5643560
  26. John C. Goble, Ken Hinckley, Randy Pausch, John W. Snell, and Neal F. Kassell. Two-handed spatial interface tools for neurosurgical planning. IEEE Computer, 28(7):20-26, July 1995.
  27. Govindaraju, N., Lin, M., & Manocha, D. 2005. Quick-CULLIDE: Fast Inter- and Intra-Object Collision Culling Using Graphics Hardware. In Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE Conference 2005 on Virtual Reality (March 12 – 16, 2005). VR. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, 59-66, 319.
  28. Chris Harrison, Hrvoje Benko, and Andrew D. Wilson. 2011. OmniTouch: wearable multitouch interaction everywhere. In Proceedings of the 24th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’11). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 441-450. DOI=10.1145/2047196.2047255
  29. Hill, Alex, Matthew Bonner, and Blair MacIntyre. 2011. “ClearSpace: Mixed Reality Virtual Teamrooms.” Paper presented at HCI ’11. 9-14 July 2011. Orlando, Florida. Springer, 333-342. 978-3-642-22024-1_37
  30. Hill, Alex, Evan Barba, Blair MacIntyre, Maribeth Gandy, and Brian Davidson. 2011. “Mirror Worlds: Experimenting with Heterogeneous AR.” Paper presented at ISUVR ’11. 22-25 August 2011. Daejoen, South Korea. 9-12. ISUVR.2011.28
  31. Hinckley, K., Randy Pausch, John C. Goble, & Neal F. Kassell. A Survey of Design Issues for Spatial Input. Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software & Technology, 1994, pp.
  32. Hodges, L., Barbara Rothbaum, Rob Kooper, Dan Opdyke, Tom Meyer, Max North, Johannes de Graaff, & James Williford. Virtual environments for treating the fear of heights. IEEE Computer, vol. 28, no. 7, 1995, pp. 27-34.
  33. Hoellerer, T., Steven Feiner, Tachio Terauchi, Gus Rashid, and Drexel Hallaway. Exploring MARS: developing indoor and outdoor user interfaces to a mobile augmented reality system. Computers & Graphics, 23(6):779-785, 1999.
  34. Hua, H., Leonard D. Brown, and Chunyu Gao. Scape: Supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 24(1):66-75,
  35. Shahram Izadi, David Kim, Otmar Hilliges, David Molyneaux, Richard Newcombe, Pushmeet Kohli, Jamie Shotton, Steve Hodges, Dustin Freeman, Andrew Davison, and Andrew Fitzgibbon. 2011. KinectFusion: real-time 3D reconstruction and interaction using a moving depth camera. In Proceedings of the 24th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology(UIST ’11). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 559-568. DOI=10.1145/2047196.2047270  link
  36. Johnson, A.E., Thomas G. Moher, Stellan Ohlsson, and Jason Leigh. Exploring multiple representations in elementary school science education. In VR, pages 201-208,
  37. Kennedy, R., Kay Stanney, and William Dunlap. Duration and Exposure to Virtual Environments: Sickness Curves During and Across Sessions. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 9, no. 5, 2000, pp. 463-472. link
  38. Kushner, David.  Engineering Everquest.  IEEE Spectrum, July
  39. Lu, F., Parkin, S., and Morgan, G. 2006. Load balancing for massively multiplayer online games. In Proceedings of 5th ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Network and System Support For Games (Singapore, October 30 – 31, 2006). NetGames ’06. ACM, New York, NY, 1.
  40. Blair MacIntyre, Jay David Bolter, and Maribeth Gandy (2004) “Presence and the Aura of Meaningful Places” 7th Annual International Workshop on Presence (PRESENCE 2004), Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain, 13-15 October 2004.
  41. Blair MacIntyre, Maribeth Gandy, Steven Dow, and Jay David Bolter. “DART: A Toolkit for Rapid Design Exploration of Augmented Reality Experiences.” To appear at conference on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST’04), October 24-27, 2004, Sante Fe, New Mexico.
  42. MacIntyre, Blair, Alex Hill, Hafez Rouzati, Maribeth Gandy, and Brian Davidson. 2011. “The Argon AR Web Browser and Standards-Based AR Application Environment.” Paper presented at ISMAR ’11. November 2011.IEEE.
  43. Mapes, D. P., and J. Michael Moshell. A two-handed interface for object manipulation in virtual environments. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 4(4):403-416, 1995.
  44. Mateas, M. and Stern, M. (2005).   Procedural Authorship: A Case-Study of the Interactive Drama Facade.  Digital Arts and Culture, Copenhagen.
  45. Mateas, M. and Stern, M.  (2005).  Structuring Content in the Facade Interactive Drama Architecture.  AIIDE, Los Angeles.
  46. Michael Mateas, An Oz−Centric Review of Interactive Drama and Believable Agents.  June 1997.  CMU Technical report CMU−CS−97−156, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.
  47. Michael Meehan , Brent Insko , Mary Whitton , Frederick P. Brooks, “Physiological measures of presence in stressful virtual environments,” ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) , Proceedings of the 29th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques July 2002, Volume 21 Issue 3.
  48. Meyer, K., Hugh L. Applewhite, and Frank A. Biocca. A survey of position trackers. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1(2):173-200, 1992.
  49. Mine, Mark R., Frederick P. Brooks, & Carlo H. Sequin. Moving Objects in Space: Exploiting Proprioception in Virtual Environment Interaction. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH, 1997, pp.
  50. Mynatt, E. D., and Maribeth Back and Roy Want and Michael Baer and Jason B. Ellis “Designing Audio Aura”, ACM CHI ’98, pp 566-573, 1998.
  51. Narayan, M., Waugh, L., Zhang, X., Bafna, P., and Bowman, D. 2005. Quantifying the benefits of immersion for collaboration in virtual environments. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (Monterey, CA, USA, November 07 – 09, 2005). VRST ’05. ACM Press, New York, NY, 78-81.
  52. Pausch, R., Snoddy, J., Taylor, R., Watson, S., and Haseltine, E. 1998. Disney’s Aladdin: first steps toward storytelling in virtual reality. In Digital Illusion: Entertaining the Future with High Technology, C. Dodsworth, Ed. Acm Press Siggraph Series. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., New York, NY, 357-372.
  53. Piekarski, W. and B. H. Thomas. Interactive augmented reality techniques for construction at a distance of 3D geometry. In Andreas Kunz and Joachim Deisinger, editors, 7th International Workshop on Immersive Projection Technology, 9th Eurographics Workshop on Virtual Enviroments, pages 019-028, Zurich, Switzerland, 2003. Eurographics Association.
  54. Pierce, J. S. and Pausch, R. 2002. Comparing voodoo dolls and HOMER: exploring the importance of feedback in virtual environments. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Changing Our World, Changing Ourselves (Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, April 20 – 25, 2002). CHI ’02. ACM Press, New York, NY, 105-112.
  55. Poupyrev, I., Numada Tomokazu, and Suzanne Weghorst. Virtual notepad: Handwriting in immersive VR, January 13 1998. link
  56. Reitmayr, Gerhard, and Tom W. Drummond. “Going out: robust model-based tracking for outdoor augmented reality.” In Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2006. ISMAR 2006. IEEE/ACM International Symposium on, pp. 109-118. IEEE, 2006. link
  57. Reitmayr, G, and Drummond, T.  Initialisation for Visual Tracking in Urban Environments
  58. Proc. IEEE ISMAR’07, 2007, Nara, Japan. From here, and specifically here
  59. George Robertson, Maarten van Dantzich, Daniel Robbins, Mary Czerwinski, Ken Hinckley, Kirsten Risden, David Thiel, and Vadim Gorokhovsky. 2000. The Task Gallery: a 3D window manager. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems(CHI ’00). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 494-501. DOI=10.1145/332040.332482
  60. Ruddle, R., Justin Savage, and Dylan Jones. Verbal Communication During Cooperative Object Manipulation. Proceedings of Collaborative Virtual Environments, 2002, pp. 120-127. link
  61. Schell, Jesse and Joe Shochet. Designing interactive theme park rides. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 21(4):11-13, 2001. link
  62. Jun’ichiro Seyama and Ruth S. Nagayama. 2007. The Uncanny Valley: Effect of Realism on the Impression of Artificial Human Faces. Presence: Teleoper. Virtual Environ. 16, 4 (August 2007), 337-351.,
  63. M. Slater, A. Steed. A virtual presence counter. Presence,Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. 9, 5. 413-434. 2000.
  64. Staadt, O. G., Walker, J., Nuber, C., and Hamann, B. 2003. A survey and performance analysis of software platforms for interactive cluster-based multi-screen rendering. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Virtual Environments 2003 (Zurich, Switzerland, May 22 – 23, 2003). EGVE ’03, vol. 39. ACM Press, New York, NY, 261-270.
  65. Stevens, B., and Jerrams-Smith, J., 2001. The sense of object-presence with projection-augmented models. In: Brewster S. and Murray-Smith, R. (eds), LNCS 2058: The 1st international workshop on haptic human-computer interaction, Glasgow: Scotland. London: England: Springer-Verlag. 73-75.
  66. Supan, P., Stuppacher, I., Haller, M. 2006.  Image Based Shadowing in Real-Time Augmented Reality, in International Journal of Virtual Reality, 2006, 5(3), pp. 1-7, IPI Press.   link
  67. Sutherland, I.  The Ultimate Display. Proceedings of IFIP Congress, pp. 506-508, 1965. link
  68. J. Edward Swan II, Joseph L. Gabbard, Deborah Hix, Robert S. Schulman, and Keun Pyo Kim. A comparative study of user performance in a map-based virtual environment. In VR, page 259. IEEE Computer Society,
  69. Tan, D. S., Robertson, G. G., and Czerwinski, M. 2001. Exploring 3D navigation: combining speed-coupled flying with orbiting. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Seattle, Washington, United States). CHI ’01. ACM Press, New York, NY, 418-425.
  70. Usoh, M., Arthur, K., Whitton, M. C., Bastos, R., Steed, A., Slater, M., and Brooks, F. P. 1999. Walking > walking-in-place > flying, in virtual environments. In Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and interactive Techniques International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., New York, NY, 359-364.
  71. Usoh, M., Ernest Catena, Sima Arman, and Mel Slater. Using Presence Questionnaires in Reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 9, no. 5, 2000, pp.
  72. Watson, B. A. and Larry F. Hodges. Using texture maps to correct for optical distortion in head-mounted displays. In Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (VRAIS), pages 172-178, March 1995.
  73. Whitton, M. C. 2003. Making virtual environments compelling. Commun. ACM 46, 7 (Jul. 2003),
  74. Andrew D. Wilson and Hrvoje Benko. 2010. Combining multiple depth cameras and projectors for interactions on, above and between surfaces. In Proceedings of the 23nd annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’10). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 273-282. DOI=10.1145/1866029.1866073
  75. Witmer, Bob G.; Michael J. Singer. Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire,Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments,Volume: 7 Number: 3 Page: 225 — 240
  76. Wren, C. R., A. Azarbayejani, T. Darrell and A. Pentland. Pfinder: Real-Time Tracking of the Human Body. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 1996.
  77. Yan Xu, Evan Barba, Iulian Radu, Maribeth Gandy, Richard Shemaka, Brian Schrank, Blair MacIntyre, and Tony Tseng. 2011. “Pre-Patterns for Designing Embodied Interactions in Handheld Augmented Reality Games.” Paper presented at ISMAR ’11. 26-29 October 2011. IEEE, 19-28.
  78. Yang, H. and Olson, G. M. 2002. Exploring collaborative navigation: the effect of perspectives on group performance. In Proceedings of the 4th international Conference on Collaborative Virtual Environments (Bonn, Germany, September 30 – October 02, 2002). CVE ’02. ACM Press, New York, NY, 135-142.
  79. Gu Ye; State, A.; Fuchs, H.; , “A practical multi-viewer tabletop autostereoscopic display,” Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), 2010 9th IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.147-156, 13-16 Oct. 2010, doi: 10.1109/ISMAR.2010.5643563 link
  80. Zeleznik, R. C., LaViola Jr, J. J., Feliz, D. A., and Keefe, D. F. 2002. Pop Through Button Devices for VE Navigation and Interaction. In Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2002 (March 24 – 28, 2002). VR. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, 127. link


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